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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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高科技洗澡:“战斗民族”俄罗斯在尝试利用核能来“烧洗澡水”******

核能可以用于民用吗?没错,核能可以用来“烧洗澡水”。俄罗斯正在试验使用“核温水”,这些水从漂浮的反应堆中泵入西伯利亚偏远城镇人们的家中。

A nuclear-powered shower? Russia tests a climate innovation

The water was hot, steamy and plentiful, and Pavel Rozhkov let it flow over his body, enjoying a shower that is not for the squeamish: On his bare skin, he was feeling the heat produced by an atomic reaction, pumped directly from a nuclear reactor into his home.

水很热,水蒸气弥漫,而且水量很大——帕维尔·罗日科夫(Pavel Rozhkov)让水流过自己的身体,享受着一场“硬核”淋浴。在他裸露的皮肤上,他感觉到了原子反应产生的热量,这些热水是直接从核反应堆抽出,泵入他家里的。

“Personally, I’m not worried,” Rozhkov said.

“我个人并不担心,”罗日科夫说

His shower came courtesy of nuclear residential heating, which remains exceedingly rare and was introduced in the remote Siberian town of Pevek only a year ago. The source is not a typical reactor with huge cooling towers but is the first of a new generation of smaller and potentially more versatile nuclear plants — in this case aboard a barge floating nearby in the Arctic Ocean.

他的淋浴是由住宅用的核供暖系统提供的,这种供暖系统非常罕见,一年前才在偏远的西伯利亚小镇佩维克(Pevek)引入。这不是一个典型的拥有巨大冷却塔的反应堆,而是新一代更小、可能有更多功能的核电站——这次是在附近北冰洋的一艘驳船上。

As countries from across the globe meet in Scotland this week to try to find new ways to mitigate climate change, Russia has embraced nuclear residential heating as one potential solution, while also hoping it can bring a competitive advantage. Companies in the United States, China and France are considering building the type of small reactors connected now to Pevek’s waterworks.

本周,全球各国齐聚苏格兰,试图找到缓解气候变化的新方法。俄罗斯已将核住宅供暖作为一种潜在的解决方案,同时也希望它能带来竞争优势。美国、中国和法国的公司也正在考虑建造与佩维克自来水厂相连的小型反应堆。

“It’s very exciting,” Jacopo Buongiorno, a professor of nuclear science and engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said in a telephone interview. These small reactors, he said, could also warm greenhouses or provide heat for industrial purposes. In bringing to life the new approach, he said, “the Russians are ahead.”

“这非常令人兴奋,”麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)核科学与工程教授雅格布·布昂乔诺(Jacopo Buongiorno)在接受电话采访时说。他说,这些小型反应堆还可以为温室供暖或为工业目的提供热量。他说,在实施新策略方面,“俄罗斯人走在了前面。”

Nuclear-powered residential heating is distinct from running space or water heaters with electricity generated from nuclear sources. Direct nuclear heating, tried in small pockets of Russia and Sweden, circulates water between a power plant and homes, transferring heat directly from fissioning uranium atoms to residences.

核动力住宅供暖不同于使用核能发电的空间或热水器。在俄罗斯和瑞典的小范围地区尝试的直接核加热,是在发电厂和家庭之间建立循环水系统,将裂变的铀原子的热量直接传送到家庭中去。

Warming homes with nuclear power also has environmental benefits, advocates of the idea say. Primarily, it avoids wasting the heat that is typically vented as steam through the conical cooling towers of nuclear plants, and instead captures it for use in residential heating, if customers are fine with it.

核能的倡导者说,用核能给家庭供暖也对环境有好处。首先,它避免了热能的浪费,这些热能通常以蒸汽的形式通过核电站的锥形冷却塔排出,如果客户不介意的话,可以收集这些热能用于住宅供暖。

Still, some experts are concerned about the potential risks, pointing to the many spills and accidents on Soviet and Russian submarines and icebreakers that used similar small reactors.

尽管如此,一些专家还是对潜在的风险感到担忧。他们指出,使用类似小型反应堆的苏联和俄罗斯潜艇和破冰船上发生了许多核泄漏和事故。

“It is nuclear technology, and the starting point needs to be that it is dangerous,” said Andrei Zolotkov, a researcher with Bellona, a Norwegian environmental group. “That is the only way to think about it.”

“这是核技术,前提条件就是它是危险的,”挪威环保组织Bellona的研究员安德烈·佐洛特科夫(Andrei Zolotkov)说,“我们只能这么想。”

Rozhkov’s wife, Natalia Rozhkova, was initially skeptical. They can see the new nuclear facility, which is about a mile away, from their kitchen window. She said she “worried for the first two days” after their apartment was connected to one of the cooling loops of the reactors. But the feeling passed.

罗日科夫的妻子娜塔莉亚·罗日科娃(Natalia Rozhkova)起初持怀疑态度。他们可以从厨房的窗户看到大约一英里外的新核设施。她说,在他们的公寓连接到反应堆的一个冷却回路后,她“头两天都很担心”。但这种感觉已经过去了。

“Whatever is new is scary,” Rozhkova said. Still, somebody has to be first, she suggested, adding, “We were the closest, so they hooked us up first.”

“任何新的东西都是可怕的,”罗日科娃说。不过,总得有人先来,她建议道,并补充说,“我们是离得最近的,所以就先试用了。”

The experiment in Siberia, Buongiorno said, could play a vital role in convincing countries that using nuclear power to limit climate change will require using it for more than just generating electricity.

布昂乔诺说,在西伯利亚进行的实验,可能有助于说服各国使用核能来应对气候变化,让他们相信,使用核能不仅仅是为了发电。

“Decarbonizing the electrical grid will only get you one-quarter of the way,” he said. “The rest comes from all these other things.”

他说:“电网脱碳只能实现四分之一的目标。其余的则来自所有这些其他的东西。“

Yes, but a nuclear shower? Buongiorno said he would take one — but conceded that “obviously this is not going to work if people don’t feel comfortable with the technology.”

那核热淋浴系统呢?布昂乔诺(Buongiorno)说他会装上一个,但他也承认“如果人们对这项技术感到不舒服,这显然是行不通的。”

Now, two other sites in Russia besides Pevek use nuclear residential heating; however, in those cases, it is a byproduct of large electrical plants.

现在,除了佩维克,俄罗斯还有两个地方使用核住宅供暖。然而,在这些情况下,它都是大型发电厂的副产品。

Soon, in Pevek, the town’s community steam bath, or banya, will also be nuclear-powered. The Russian state nuclear company, Rosatom, connected the reactors to the heating pipes in one neighborhood in June 2020. It is now expanding the hot water service to the whole town, which has a population of about 4,500.

很快,在佩维克,小镇社区的蒸汽浴室也将使用核能。2020年6月,俄罗斯国家核能公司(Rosatom)将一个社区的反应堆与供暖管道连接起来。目前,该公司正在将热水服务扩展到人口约4500人的整个城镇。

The plant’s two cores are cooled by a series of water loops. In each reactor, the first loop is contaminated with radioactive particles. But this water never leaves the plant. Through heat exchangers, it transfers heat — but not contaminated water — to other loops.

核电站的两个核心由一系列的水循环来冷却。在每个反应堆中,第一个回路都受到了放射性粒子的污染。但这些水从未离开过工厂。通过热交换器,它将热量(而不是被污染的水)转移到其他回路。

In Pevek, one of these loops is the system of pipes that leave the plant, branch out and supply hot water to homes.

在佩维克,其中一个循环是管道系统,它离开工厂,分支并向家庭供应热水。

The company promotes a number of safety features. The plant can withstand a crash by a small airplane. The vessel that holds it doubles as a containment structure. And the water circulating through buildings is at a higher pressure than the cooling loop from which it derives heat within the plant, in theory preventing a radiation leak from spreading into town.

该公司推出了一些安全功能,比如这家工厂能承受小飞机的撞击。而且,在建筑物中循环的水柱所处的压力要高于冷却回路的压力,而冷却回路是从核电站中获得热量的,这在理论上可以防止辐射泄漏扩散到城镇。

Irina K. Buriyeva, a librarian, said she appreciated the plentiful heat and electricity. Of the risks of a radiation leak or explosion, she said, “We try not to think about it, honestly.”

图书管理员伊琳娜·布里耶娃(Irina K. Buriyeva)说,她很喜欢这里充足的暖气和电力。对于辐射泄漏或爆炸的风险,她说,“老实说,我们只能尽量不去想它。”

Kirill Toropov, deputy director of the floating nuclear plant in Pevek, said its benefits were already visible locally, citing snow that is less sullied with coal soot. “We need to note this positive ecological moment,” he said.

佩维克漂浮核电站的副主任基里尔·托罗波夫(Kirill Toropov)说,它的好处在当地已经显而易见,他举例说,积雪受到煤烟污染的程度降低了。“我们需要注意这个积极的生态变化,”他说。

Rozhkov, 41, an accountant, who has been showering and bathing three children in nuclear-warmed water for a year now, said Russia’s use of small reactors in icebreakers gave him confidence in the technology.

现年41岁的会计师罗日科夫(Rozhkov)已经用核温水给三个孩子洗澡一年了。他说,俄罗斯在破冰船上使用小型反应堆,让他对这项技术有了信心。

“We aren’t worried,” he said, “that the details are still being worked out.”

“我们并不担心,”他说,“细节仍在优化中。”

His wife said they were “believers,” and added, “There are things we cannot control. I can only pray for our safety, for the safety of our town.”

罗日科夫的妻子说,他们是“拥护者”,并补充说,“有些事情我们无法控制。我只能为我们的安全祈祷,为我们小镇的安全祈祷。”

驾车出门得先绕个大圈 西安颐合庭住宅小区车库“南进北出”设计方案引发小区业主不满意******

\

  小区车库出入口。

  近期,亚欧六路颐合庭小区北端的袁雒路宣布启用,小区车库的北口也随着对外开放,按理说住户的出行应当更便捷,可小区有车一族驾车外出务必得先绕道一圈,确实难堪。

  住户调侃:

  “南进北出”并不方便。

  11月13日,颐合庭小区车库进出口贴出《通知》称,小区的车库南门对外开放,南北方宣布全线贯通,小区全部车子包含非机动车道由原来的南口进南口出所有改成从南口进北口出。殊不知出行时住户们发觉,那样的行驶方法并不方便,还存有一定的安全风险。

  “依照这种的行驶方法,小区的车子从北口驶离后,往东顺着袁雒路行车200米左右,就能进到广运潭大路,可是这条路面上面有两家中小学,也有大中型住户小区,迟早高峰期时间段,路面拥挤不堪。假如要想避开拥挤,从车库驶离后就得往西行车至北辰路,小区绝大多数住户的出行方位全是西南方向,这样一来,大伙儿务必从北辰村调头或是以北辰立交桥上绕道。”住户孙先生说,值得一提的是,开车回家,路都不畅顺,不论是从西面、南面或是北部回家的车子需要在广运潭大路与亚欧六路口调头才可以进到地下车库,晚高峰期时间段小区门口路面的交通量非常大,车子排长队调头危害交通出行都不安全性。

  在住户的陪护下,新闻记者开车感受了小区“南进北出”的行驶。正值早上10点,尽管早高峰時间已过,但小区住户驾车外出必经之路的袁雒道路上,南北方两边都停满了车子,使本来双向单车道的地面看起来更为紧凑。“早晨驾车外出从这一方位走,不上300米的路没个十分钟二十分钟压根就出不来。”小区住户杨女士说。然后,新闻记者又试着从小区车库北口驶离后往西行车,因为西面路面直达北辰立交桥,车子没法左拐,只有一路向北,从辅路行车至北辰村才可以调头,全过程必须绕道近4千米才可以开到小区北门所属的亚欧六路,假如上桥行车一样必须绕道近4千米。

  新闻记者帮办:

  能不能“北进南出” 房地产商同意投票表决。

  “小区提升一个进出口原本是件好事儿,但如今来看,那样的设计方案并不科学。许多住户驾车检测后觉得,将小区车库进出口改成‘北进南出’难题就能得到解决。”杨女士说,近几天大伙儿持续向小区物业管理公司体现,但获得的回应是,必须汇报房地产商解决。小区业主又联络房地产商,但一直未看到相关责任人,难题没法获得处理。

  11月17日,新闻记者联络了小区房地产商及其物业管理责任人,另一方表明,小区车库“南进北出”的制定和整体规划,是依据小区附近道路情况及其车库内行车安全性综合性考虑到制订的。由于现阶段一部分住户对于此事拥有不一样建议,从达到大部分小区业主的出行必须考虑,可以在小区内采用网络投票的方法,由物业管理公司实行、小区业主意味着全过程监管,大伙儿一同参加一起处理进出家门口的难题。最后假如允许“北进南出”计划方案的住户总数超出70%,房地产商会协同物业管理公司及其小区业主再次探讨设计方案小区车子的出行计划方案,若网络投票总数不够70%,则依照原计划方案执行。文/图 首席记者 龚伟芳。



来源于:西安晚报。

编写:田媛。

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Gebreselassie condemns mixing sports with politics******

ADDIS ABABA, Dec. 13 (Xinhua) -- Ethiopia's multiple Olympic gold medalist Haile Gebreselassie has strongly opposed attempts of some Western politicians and countries to disrupt the 2022 Winter Olympics with calls for a boycott.。

In a recent interview with Xinhua, Gebreselassie said the ongoing provocation by some Western politicians and countries to shun the upcoming Winter Olympics should be met seriously by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).。

"I see the move as unimportant and meaningless," said Gebreselassie, who has won two Olympic gold medals over 10,000 meters and four World Championship titles, among others.。

The veteran long-distance runner, who has also served as president of the Ethiopian Athletics Federation, underscored that recent boycott attempts would not have any meaningful impact on the Beijing Winter Olympics.。

"Do not get bothered," said Gebreselassie in his message to the organizers of the Beijing Winter Olympics.。

"The attempts [will] in no way affect the organizers, the people and the government of China.。

"The only way to bring the world together is [through] sport, especially the Olympics. I want to tell the politicians that they have to think twice, not once, before making such decisions, because this is sport," he added.。

Recalling the "amazing" 2008 Summer Olympics, Gebreselassie expressed his optimism that Beijing will host the upcoming Winter Olympics "in the most spectacular manner."

"As to my experience, I do not see many officials going to the Olympic Games. The Olympics need athletes, not officials," said Gebreselassie.。

Considered by many as one of the greatest long-distance runners of all time, Gebreselassie referred to the ongoing attempts to boycott the Beijing Winter Olympics as "old style."

"They would have succeeded had they been made during the previous era when there were Eastern and Western blocs," Gebreselassie said.。

He stressed that the Olympics should not be politicized and that Western countries must not mix sporting events with politics.。

"Water and oil do not mix, so sport and politics should not," Gebreselassie said, adding that the world should not give attention to such kinds of "silly activities" by the West.。

"Failing to do so will not be good for the international Olympic body," he warned.。

Noting the motto of the Beijing 2022 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games has been set as "Together for a Shared Future," Gebreselassie commended the commitment of China in working together with the rest of the world for a better future. Enditem。

陕西省为什么要对城中村等风险工作人员开展转运隔离?官方解答******

  2022年1月4日中午,陕西省市人民政府新闻报道公司办公室举办陕西省新冠肺炎疫情防控工作中记者招待会。陕西省卫生健康委详细介绍了城中村防治状况。

  对近5日内有兴新病毒感染者的城中村,陕西省进行敲门行动,逐项入户调查,摸透村里每一户居住人员实数,保证抗体检测、密接次密接管控,保证城中村管控不漏一户不漏一人。

  因城中村人口密度散布大,许多不具有本人或家中单独用餐、上厕所、独立居住等日常生活标准,不具有家居隔离标准,这种人员平时生活轨迹交叉式比较严重,一旦发生病案,很有可能给全部小院乃至周边小院居住人员产生感柒风险性安全隐患。

  权威专家判断觉得,仅有将城中村等风险性人员贯彻落实1人单人间集中化隔离,在隔离点让专业的工作中人员进行健康监测,开展更规律性的抗体检测,才可以合理地阻隔社交间、左邻右舍间的散播,防止更高范畴的人员被封闭式管控。因此,陕西省举我省力量,将风险性人员开展装运隔离。

  (来源于:中央新闻)。



来源于:中央新闻。

编写:曹静。

领克新款02 Hatchback Plus,有些什么变化?

1.外交部:敦促美方停止抹黑中国军民融合发展政策

2.楼市限购解除,北三县购房量增长明显!

3.阿伽·侯赛因:中国或许可以用一带一路倡议结束俄乌冲突

4.“利器”!中国创造相当于地球磁场90多万倍的磁场,有啥用?速看……

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