面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

——中国科学院办院方针

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時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
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America's notorious records of economic bullying******

US President Joe Biden signed on Thursday a piece of legislation alleged to ban imports from China's Xinjiang and impose so-called sanctions over debunked claims of forced labor, adding another testimony to America's long-lasting and detrimental economic bullying on the rest of the world.

From introducing high tariffs to imposing unilateral sanctions under the pretext of "national security," "democracy" or "human rights," the notorious records of the self-proclaimed free market economy have not only astounded and agitated the larger world, but also exposed America's own aberrant and maimed economic governance.

Uncontrolled "invisible hand"

Over the past decades, Neoliberalism, an ideology well serves the need for capital expansion, has been popular with US political and business elites, and has been broadly applied to America's economic governance.

During his inauguration address in 1981, then US President Ronald Reagan, who took a strong belief in Neoliberalism, said, "government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem." His policies of cuts in taxes and benefits, as well as encouragement of free competition, have posed a risk to the "invisible hand," leaving the US economy uncontrolled with ever-growing budget and trade deficits.

The US real economy has been increasingly hollowed out ever since the 1970s and 1980s, and this trend is going even further in the 21st century. Coupled with the implementation of Neoliberal policies in the United States is a more uneven distribution of the economic globalization dividend among different US industries and groups, which is very much miniatured in the sharp contrast between depressing lives in the Rust Belt region and absolute opulence in Wall Street.

The Economic Well-Being of US Households in 2020, a report published in May by the US Federal Reserve, showed that the wealthiest 1 percent of Americans control about 16 times more wealth than the bottom 50 percent.

Besides, according to an analysis by Oxford Economics, US households accumulated around 1.6 trillion US dollars in excess savings in the period between March 2020 and January 2021. But the top 20 percent of earners – and to a lesser extent, the second 20 percent – account for all the current accumulated cash.

"Transforming the US economy requires policymakers to recognize that markets cannot perform the work of government," US economist Heather Boushey wrote in late 2020 in an opinion piece.

Incompetent government regulation

In the face of pandemic-caused economic difficulties, policymakers should not only consider distribution justice to avoid social polarization, but also caution against partisan politics that might hijack economic policies.

However, unfortunately, the United States has been suffering both social inequality and poor efficiency in policymaking, adding pains to the nation which records the most positive COVID-19 cases.

Influenced by the rules of the capital-favored free market economic system, the US economic policies have long perferred the interests of the rich.

"Tax policy has favored the wealthy and corporations for decades," an opinion piece posted by The New York Times said, adding that "the Fed controls the flow of money, and it flows to the wealthy."

The top 1 percent of households received 75 percent of taxable long-term capital gains in 2019, and more than half went to the highest-income 0.1 percent of households, according to the Tax Policy Center, a joint venture of the Urban Institute and Brookings Institution.

Different interests of divided constituencies also drag down the efficiency of government regulations.

In Washington, partisan differences have been pronounced as politicians lobby to maximize the interests of their own constituency, which might block major law-making process aimed at benefiting the public.

On Sunday, Democrats have encountered a major setback as Democratic Senator Joe Manchin publicly stated he would vote "no" on Biden's landmark 2-trillion-dollar social spending bill, which, known as the Build Back Better Act, has witnessed months of negotiations among Democrats.

"There is a vicious cycle in which the market and the rules governing the market – the framework for politics itself – shifts in the direction of the wealthy and big corporations," Robert Reich, who served as Labor Secretary under former US President Bill Clinton, pointed out in an interview with The Sunday Magazine.

In Reich's view, if great wealth of a society is concentrated in the hands of a few, democracy will inevitably be corrupted.

As such a hypothesis becomes reality in US politics, it is unlikely for the government to produce policies in a fair, effective and consistent manner.

Addiction to meddling global economy

While domestically beset by yawning social inequality and belated economical regulations or policies, some ill-minded US politicians have been seeking to shift the burden by interfering with or bullying its trading partners, including China.

In the names of the decoupling plan, the "China Initiative" and "entity list," as well as tariff tools, Washington has been addicted to economic sanctions and overused its financial hegemony, becoming the biggest violator of free trade and market rules.

Over recent years, in contrast to its long-proclaimed rules of free market economy and international trade norms, the White House has abused state power under the pretext of national security to restrain and suppress Chinese enterprises, regardless of their contributions to the US economic growth.

So far, hundreds of Chinese institutions and companies have been added to the US "entity list" of export controls.

Commenting on Washington's administrative attack upon Chinese companies, Samm Sacks, a senior cybersecurity policy fellow at Yale Law School's Paul Tsai China Center and New America, said it sets a dangerous precedent in which the US government can blacklist companies based on country of origin using blanket national security as justification.

History of economic governance has proved that interfering in trading partners amid adversities is not only helpless to improve one's domestic economic resilience or sustain its development momentum, but also suppresses innovation, undermines global supply chains and disrupts international trade orders.

If Washington persists in bullying trading partners, such policy will boomerang on the US economy itself, as well as casting a shadow over the recovery of the world economy.

北极光有声音?科学争论真相究竟如何******

有一种神秘现象困扰了观测者几个世纪:有着奇妙颜色的北极光会产生任何可识别的声音吗?由于太阳粒子和地球大气中气体分子发生相互作用,极光通常发生在地球两极附近,那里的磁场最强。然而,关于极光发出声音的报道非常罕见,而且一直以来都被科学家们忽视。

The people who claim to hear the Northern Lights

It's a question that has puzzled observers for centuries: do the fantastic green and crimson light displays of the aurora borealis produce any discernible sound?

这是一个困扰了观测者几个世纪的问题:有着奇妙颜色的北极光会产生可辨别的声音吗?

Conjured by the interaction of solar particles with gas molecules in Earth's atmosphere, the aurora generally occurs near Earth's poles, where the magnetic field is strongest. Reports of the aurora making a noise, however, are rare – and were historically dismissed by scientists.

由于太阳粒子与地球大气中的气体分子相互作用,极光通常发生在地球的两极附近,那里磁场最强。但关于极光发出声音的报道非常罕见,而且一直以来都被科学家们所忽视。

But a Finnish study from 2016 claimed to have finally confirmed that the Northern Lights really do produce sound audible to the human ear. One of the researchers involved in the study captured a sound, possibly made by the captivating lights, that was estimated to have originated 70m (230ft) above ground level.

但2016年芬兰的一项研究最终证实,北极光确实能发出人耳能听到的声音。参与这项研究的一名研究人员捕捉到一种声音,据估计是由这些迷人的光所发出的,声音来自于地面以上70米(230英尺)的地方。

Still, the mechanism behind the sound remains somewhat mysterious, as are the conditions that must be met for the sound to be heard. My recent research takes a look over historic reports of auroral sound to understand the methods of investigating this elusive phenomenon and the process of establishing whether reported sounds were objective, illusory or imaginary.

不过,这种声音背后的机制仍有些神秘,就像要听到这种声音必须满足的条件一样。我最近的研究回顾了关于极光声音的报道,以了解如何研究这一难以捉摸的现象,以及确定所报道的声音是客观、虚幻还是虚构的。

Auroral noise was the subject of particularly lively debate in the first decades of the 20th Century, when accounts from settlements across northern latitudes reported that sound sometimes accompanied the mesmerising light displays in their skies.

在20世纪头几十年里,极光发出声音是一个特别活跃的争论点。当时来自北纬地区定居点的报告称,声音有时伴随着天空中迷人的光出现。

Witnesses told of a quiet, almost imperceptible crackling, whooshing or whizzing noise during particularly violent Northern Lights displays. In the early 1930s, for instance, personal testimonies started flooding into The Shetland News, the weekly newspaper of the subarctic Shetland Islands, likening the sound of the Northern Lights to "rustling silk" or "two planks meeting flat ways".

目击者称,在特别猛烈的北极光出现期间,会有一种轻微的、几乎察觉不到的爆裂声或嗖嗖声。例如在20世纪30年代早期,在亚北极设得兰群岛(Shetland Islands)的周报《设得兰新闻报》(The Shetland News)上开始出现大量个人证实,将北极光的声音比作“丝绸发出的沙沙声”或“把两块木板拍在一起”。

These tales were corroborated by similar testimony from northern Canada and Norway. Yet the scientific community was less than convinced, especially considering very few western explorers claimed to have heard the elusive noises themselves.

加拿大北部和挪威也有类似证言证实了这些说法。但科学界对此并不信服,尤其是考虑到很少有西方探险家声称自己听到过这种难以捉摸的声音。

The credibility of auroral noise reports from this time was intimately tied to altitude measurements of the Northern Lights. It was considered that only those displays that descended low into the Earth’s atmosphere would be able to transmit sound which could be heard by the human ear.

这个时期极光声音报告的可信度与北极光的海拔测量密切相关。人们认为,只有那些下降到地球大气层较低的极光才能传出人耳能听到的声音。

The problem here was that results recorded during the Second International Polar Year of 1932-33 found aurorae most commonly took place 100km (62 miles) above Earth, and very rarely below 80km (50 miles). This suggested it would be impossible for discernible sound from the lights to be transmitted to the Earth's surface.

问题是1932至1933年第二个国际极地年(Second Intenational Polar Year)的记录显示,极光最常发生在地球上空100公里(62英里)的地方,而在80公里(50英里)以下的地方很少见。这表明光发出的可辨识的声音不可能传输到地球表面。

Given these findings, eminent physicists and meteorologists remained sceptical, dismissing accounts of auroral sound and very low aurorae as folkloric stories or auditory illusions.

鉴于这些发现,著名的物理学家和气象学家仍然持怀疑态度,认为极光发出声音是民间传说或听觉错觉。

Sir Oliver Lodge, the British physicist involved in the development of radio technology, commented that auroral sound might be a psychological phenomenon due to the vividness of the aurora's appearance – just as meteors sometimes conjure a whooshing sound in the brain. Similarly, the meteorologist George Clark Simpson argued that the appearance of low aurorae was likely an optical illusion caused by the interference of low clouds.

参与无线电技术发展的英国物理学家奥利弗·洛奇爵士(Sir Oliver Lodge)说,极光非常生动,可能导致出现一种心理现象,就像流星有时会在大脑中发出嗖嗖声一样。同样,气象学家乔治·克拉克·辛普森(George Clark Simpson)认为,低空极光很可能是由低空云层的干扰造成的一种光学错觉。

Nevertheless, 20th-Century accounts written by two astronomer's assistants claimed to have heard the aurora, adding some legitimacy to the large volume of personal reports.

不过,20世纪两位天文学家的助手所写的报告声称听到了极光,为大量个人报告增加了一些合法性。

One wrote they had heard a "very curious faint whistling sound, distinctly undulatory, which seemed to follow exactly the vibrations of the aurora", while another experienced a sound like "burning grass or spray". As convincing as these two last testimonies may have been, they still didn't propose a mechanism by which auroral sound could operate.

其中一人写道,他们听到了“一种非常奇怪的微弱的哨声,有明显的波动,似乎与极光的振动完全一致”,而另一人则听到了“燃烧的草或喷雾”的声音。尽管最后两个证据很有说服力,但他们没有提出极光声音如何运作的机制。

The answer to this enduring mystery which has subsequently garnered the most support was first tentatively suggested in 1923 by Clarence Chant, a well-known Canadian astronomer. He argued that the motion of the Northern Lights alters Earth's magnetic field, inducing changes in the electrification of the atmosphere, even at a significant distance.

1923年,加拿大著名天文学家克拉伦斯·钱特(Clarence Chant)首次试探性地提出这个经久不衰之谜的答案,后来得到了最多支持。他认为,北极光的运动改变了地球的磁场,导致大气电气化,即便是在相当远的距离。

This electrification produces a crackling sound much closer to Earth's surface when it meets objects on the ground, much like the sound of static. This could take place on the observer's clothes or spectacles, or possibly in surrounding objects including fir trees or the cladding of buildings.

当电气化过程遇到地面物体时,会在离地表更近的地方产生劈啪声,很像静电的声音。这可能发生在观察者的衣服或眼镜上,也可能发生在周围的物体上,包括冷杉树或建筑物的包层。

Chant's theory correlates well with many accounts of auroral sound, and is also supported by occasional reports of the smell of ozone – which reportedly carries a metallic odour similar to an electrical spark – during Northern Lights displays.

钱特的理论与许多关于极光声音的报道很好地联系在一起,也被偶尔报道的臭氧气味所支持——据报道,在北极光显示时,臭氧带有类似电火花的金属气味。

Yet Chant's paper went largely unnoticed in the 1920s, only receiving recognition in the 1970s when two auroral physicists revisited the historical evidence. Chant's theory is largely accepted by scientists today, although there's still debate as to how exactly the mechanism for producing the sound operates.

不过,钱特的论文在20世纪20年代基本上没有引起人们的注意,直到20世纪70年代,两位极光物理学家重新审视了历史证据,才得到认可。钱特的理论在很大程度上被今天的科学家所接受,不过对于产生声音的机制究竟如何运作仍然存在争议。

What is clear is that the aurora does, on rare occasions, make sounds audible to the human ear. The eerie reports of crackling, whizzing and buzzing noises accompanying the lights describe an objective audible experience – not something illusory or imagined.

可以确定的是,极光确实在极少数情况下能让人耳听到声音。许多人对噼啪声、嗖嗖声和嗡嗡声的描述,代表一种客观的听觉体验,而不是幻觉或想象。

If you want to hear the Northern Lights for yourself, you may have to spend a considerable amount of time in the polar regions, considering the aural phenomenon only presents itself in 5% of violent auroral displays. It's also most commonly heard on the top of mountains, surrounded by only a few buildings – so it's not an especially accessible experience.

如果你想亲自听到北极光,可能得在极地花很长时间,因为这种听觉现象只出现在5%的强烈极光中。它也最常在山顶听到,周围只有几栋建筑,所以不是特别容易实现的体验。

In recent years, the sound of the aurora has nonetheless been explored for its aesthetic value, inspiring musical compositions and laying the foundation for novel ways of interacting with its electromagnetic signals.

近年来人们一直在探索极光的美学价值,激发音乐创作,并为了与极光电磁信号相互作用找到新方式奠定了基础。

The Latvian composer Ēriks Ešenvalds has used journal extracts from the American explorer Charles Hall and the Norwegian statesman Fridjtof Nansen, both of whom claimed to have heard the Northern Lights, in his music. His composition, Northern Lights, interweaves these reports with the only known Latvian folk song recounting the auroral sound phenomenon, sung by a tenor solo.

拉脱维亚作曲家Ēriks Ešenvalds在音乐中使用了美国探险家查尔斯·霍尔(Charles Hall)和挪威政治家弗里德托夫·南森(Fridjtof Nansen)的日记节选,两人都声称听到了北极光。他的作品《北极光》(Northern Lights)将这些报告与唯一已知的拉脱维亚民歌交织在一起,这首民歌讲述了极光现象,由男高音独唱。

Or you can also listen to the radio signals of the Northern Lights at home. In 2020, a BBC Radio 3 programme remapped very low frequency radio recordings of the aurora onto the audible spectrum. Although not the same as perceiving audible noises produced by the Northern Lights in person on a snowy mountaintop, these sounds give an awesome sense of the aurora's transitory, fleeting and dynamic nature.

或者你也可以在家收听北极光的无线电信号。2020年,英国广播公司第三电台的一档节目将极光的极低频无线电录制下来,重新映射到可听频谱上。虽然这与在雪山顶上亲耳聆听北极光发出的声音不同,但这些声音仍能给人一种令人敬畏的感觉,让人感悟极光的瞬息万变。

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西安绕城高速入口绿码即可放行 不再核查48小时核酸******\

“请所有离市车辆人员主动出示一码通绿码及48小时核酸阴性证明,中高风险地区所在区县人员请一并出示离市证明,谢谢您的配合。”周一早高峰时,绕城高速口的喇叭一直在喊。

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  3月21日上午8时许,西安市绕城高速高新区入口,虽然车流量较大,但并未有拥堵,车辆流速很快,来往车辆亮绿码即可快速通过。身着“大白”防护服的工作人员表示,他们是几班倒执勤,接到通知3月21日执勤时只查验司机绿码就可放行,不再核查48小时核酸。

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  华商报记者 肖琳


陕西省:产生居民用电用气停供限供的地市将严肃问责******

  11月26日,陕西能源保供工作领导组公司办公室下发《冬春季保障广大群众溫暖越冬多个对策》的通告,确保能源安全性保供,确保广大群众溫暖越冬。

  燃气保供 上下游气路公司要严苛依照合同书保障气路。

  通告确立,深入分析高产增供发展潜力。上下游气路公司要认真落实已签合同資源,在确保安全性的条件下,超负荷生产制造,进一步释放出来高产发展潜力,搞好高峰期用气保障。各市区(区)要提早机构2022年的燃气、煤碳、电力工程中远期合同签订工作。上下游气路公司要严苛依照合同书保障气路,对民生工程及民生工程供暖用气不足的,需补签气路合同书。

  贯彻落实“煤改电”保障。各市区(区)要进一步履行责任,立即将“煤改电”补助认真落实,精确增加对艰难人群的供暖补贴幅度。要依照“以气定改”标准,除纳入方案和已经执行的“煤改电”新项目外,严格控制规模性增加乡村“煤改电”,稳步推进工业级气新项目,禁止车子油改气。对没完成更新改造换气的“煤改电”客户,供暖季期内可运用原来采暖设备再次供暖。对2021年新更新改造尚不具有安全性平稳换气标准或并未通过一年具体运作检测的“煤改电”客户,禁止拆卸原来采暖设备,确保人民群众安全性供暖。

  做实做细“压非保民”应急预案。各市区(区)燃气主管机构和公司要立足于解决暴雪天气,进一步健全非居民可终断调峰客户削减计划方案,必需时依照“确保安全性、提早告之、充足沟通交流、妥当推动”的标准,运行分等级应急预案,先后削减可终断客户供气量。

  电力工程供热保供 确保电供暖客户靠谱平稳供电系统。

  竭尽全力保障发电量供暖发电机组稳定运作。各市区(区)要提升检测调度,适用公司一切正常采暖磷酸原。各发电量公司要严苛遵循电力网调度命令运行和运作发电机组,非方案停止运营(没有安全事故非停)发电机组务必提早报省能源保供工作领导组,书面形式表明缘故,没经容许不可私自停止运营。针对不实行调度命令或者有工作能力发电量而不发电量,并比较严重危害电力工程、供热供货的发电量公司,省能源保供工作领导组要开展提醒谈话、通告。

  想方设法保障全社会发展用电量纪律平稳。各市区(区)、各公司进一步确立有关领域的能耗等级水准,抵制高能耗领域的低的水准上公司不科学、混乱用能。国家电网陕西电力工程有限责任公司要提高电力工程供求平衡预测分析和用电量局势剖析,增加西安市等电力工程供求趋紧大城市和关键客户的监管。全力以赴保障党政军行政机关、军用国防安全、广播节目、电信网、牢房等相关国防安全和公共秩序的主要行业客户用电量,非安全事故状态下,不可限定民用电,不可限定煤矿业、油田、天燃气管道和LNG储气库、铁路线的有关生产制造负载。

  确保电供暖客户靠谱平稳供电系统。妥当推动“煤改气”清洁取暖工作,不断完善“煤改气”举报督查体制,对涉及到“煤改气”的各种订单着急的事急办、挂牌督办,确保第一时间回应解决。各市区(区)要进一步担负保民生监督责任,积极主动筹集补助资产,保障电供暖客户水电费补助立即足量及时。

  煤碳保供 各市区(区)对供暖用煤保障工作负责任。

  各设区市政府部门担负属地义务。各市区(区)对主管机关内的人民群众供暖用煤保障工作负责任,要促进满足条件的暂时停工煤矿业尽早复工复产,发生停工的煤矿业要立即汇报省能源保供工作领导组,对工作不到位发生明显限产的城市和公司,省能源保供工作领导组要开展提醒谈话、通告。

  煤碳制造业企业担负保供监督责任。在陕各种生产制造煤矿业国家法定假日维持一切正常生产制造和市场销售,全力以赴进行我国下发的煤碳保供每日任务,确保煤碳中远期合同书全额履行合同,强化措施平稳煤价,果断进行四季度煤碳生产制造供货每日任务。

  优先选择保障发电量供暖用煤铁路线运输能力。要加强运输能力综合,深层次发掘提运发展潜力,将保障发电量供暖用煤运送要求放到主要部位,增加对榆林市等地的运输能力推广,对补签的电煤中远期三方合同保证应保尽保。

  冬春季能源保供工作纳入国营企业考评的具体指标值。

  各市区(区)要完善煤化工燃气运保障工作体制,提高体制的权威和实效性,提升检测调度,立即融洽解决困难,加强科学研究应对措施,确保各类工作强有力、井然有序、合理推动。

  冬天用暖高峰期期内,各市区(区)要提升日检测和日调度,立即追踪工作进度,提升能源保供高危害气温灾难检验预测分析和会商判断,采用相应措施保障能源提供。各市区(区)、各保供有关部门和企业要认真落实24钟头值班管理制度,维持信息内容通畅,搞好上通下达,遇有紧急状况和紧急事件,可以保证反应迅速、汇报立即、处理坚决。

  省能源保供工作领导组将对工作进行状况好的城市和公司给予奖励通报,对因工作不到位、各类能源保供对策实行不及时,产生民用电、天然气断供限供的城市和公司严肃问责。冬春季能源保供工作做为2021年国企考评的具体指标值,推行“一票否决”。

  华商报新闻记者 李婧。


来源于:华商网-华商报。

编写:方方正正。

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