面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,率先实现科学技术跨越发展,率先建成国家创新人才高地,率先建成国家高水平科技智库,率先建设国际一流科研机构。

——中国科学院办院方针

首页 >  > 

百姓彩票-百姓购彩

時間:2022-08-15 來源:本站 點擊:258次
【字体:

双语热点:家庭与教育:父母偏爱孩子真的是件坏事?******

在大多数有多个孩子的家庭中,父母都会偏爱其中一个孩子,尽管承认这一点可能让人不大舒服。不过,研究也表明,大多数孩子都分不清父母最喜欢的孩子到底是谁。那么,真正的问题是,父母如何管理孩子可能感受到的父母偏袒感。

Is having a favourite child really a bad thing?

Although it may be uncomfortable to admit, many parents play favourites among their children. Is that 'bad' parenting?

尽管承认这一点可能让人不大舒服,但许多父母都对孩子有偏爱。这真是“糟糕”的育儿方式?

Joanna knew she had a favourite child from the moment her second son was born. The Kent, UK-based mum says she loves both of her children, but her youngest child just “gets” her in a way that her first-born doesn’t.

从第二个儿子出生那一刻起,乔安娜就知道她对其中一个有偏爱。这位生活在英国肯特郡的母亲说,两个孩子她都爱,但老二以一种老大没有的方式“懂得”她。

When Joanna’s first baby was delivered, he was rushed away from her due to a health concern, and she couldn’t see him for 24 hours. Missing this valuable bonding period was, she believes, the start of a long-lasting preference for her second son, whom she was able to spend time with immediately after he was born.

当乔安娜的第一个孩子出生时,由于健康问题,宝宝被匆匆带走,她24小时内都见不到。她觉得,错过这段宝贵的亲密期,让她对第二个孩子开始偏爱。她可以在第二个儿子出生后立即与他在一起。

“To sum our relationships up: I have to make an appointment to speak to my eldest,” says Joanna, whose full name is being withheld to protect her children. “With my youngest, I could call him at 0230 and he’d drive miles to meet me. My youngest is the nicest guy on the planet. He’s caring, generous, courteous and friendly. He’s the kind of person who would help anyone out.”

“总结一下我们的关系:要和大女儿说话,我们必须先约个时间,”乔安娜说,为了保护她的孩子,她没有透露全名。”我的小儿子呢,我可以在半夜两点半打电话给他,他会开车好几英里来接我。我的小儿子是世界上最好的男人。他关心他人,慷慨大方,彬彬有礼,待人友好。他是那种愿意帮助任何人摆脱困境的人。“

Though she battled her feelings for years, Joanna says now she’s in a place of acceptance. “I could write a book on why I love one more than the other,” she says. “It’s been hard, but I haven’t got any guilt.”

尽管与自己的感情斗争了多年,乔安娜说她现在可以接受了。她说:”我可以写一本书,关于为什么我更偏爱其中一个孩子。这很难,但我没有任何负罪感。”

Unlike Joanna, most parents’ favouritism is subtle and goes undiscussed. Having a favourite child might be the greatest taboo of parenthood, yet research shows that the majority of parents do indeed have a favourite.

与乔安娜不同的是,大多数父母的偏爱是微妙的,不会被提及。有一个自己更喜欢的孩子可能是为人父母的最大禁忌,但研究表明,大多数父母确实都有最喜欢的孩子。

With plenty of evidence to suggest that being the least-favoured child can fundamentally shape the personality and lead to intense sibling rivalries, it’s no wonder that parents might worry about letting their preferences slip. Yet research also shows that most kids can’t tell who their parents’ favourite child really is. The real issue, then, is how parents manage their children’s perception of favouritism.

大量证据表明,成为最不受欢迎的孩子会从根本上塑造性格,并导致兄弟姐妹之间的激烈竞争,难怪父母可能会担心不小心流露出自己的偏好。不过,研究也表明,大多数孩子都分不清父母最喜欢的孩子到底是谁。那么,真正的问题是,父母如何管理孩子可能感受到的父母偏袒感。

Playing favourites

偏心偏爱

“Not every parent has a favourite child, but many do,” says Jessica Griffin, an associate professor of psychiatry and paediatrics at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, US. “Data suggests that mothers, in particular, show favouritism to children who have similar values to them and that engage more with family, over qualities such as being highly ambitious or career driven.”

美国马萨诸塞大学医学院精神病学和儿科副教授杰西卡·格里芬(Jessica Griffin)说:“不是所有父母都有最喜欢的孩子,但很多人都有。”“数据显示,与雄心勃勃或事业心强等品质相比,妈妈们更偏爱和自己价值观相似、更注重家庭的孩子。”

Regardless of the reason, some research shows many parents almost certainly do have favourites – whether they admit to it or not. In one study, up to 74% of mothers and 70% of fathers in the UK have been shown to exhibit preferential treatment towards one child.

不管原因是什么,一些研究表明,许多父母都有偏爱的孩子,不管他们承认与否。一项研究显示,在英国,高达74%的母亲和70%的父亲对自一个孩子表现出偏爱。

Yet for most, the topic remains off-limits. In other research, when parents were surveyed, just 10% admitted to having a favourite child, suggesting that for most mothers and fathers, feelings of favouritism remain a tightly held family secret.

不过,对大多数人来说,这个话题仍然是禁区。在另一项调查中,只有10%的父母承认自己有最喜欢的孩子,这表明对大多数父母来说,偏爱的感觉仍然是严格保守的家庭秘密。

When parents do admit to having a preferred child, research suggests birth order plays an important part in who they favour. According to the same YouGov survey, parents who admitted having a favourite child showed an overwhelming preference towards the baby of the family, with 62% of parents who have two children opting for their youngest. Forty-three percent of parents with three or more children prefer their last-born, with a third selecting a middle child and just 19% leaning towards their eldest.

当父母承认自己偏爱哪个孩子时,研究表明,出生顺序对他们偏爱哪个孩子起着重要作用。根据YouGov的一项调查,承认有最喜欢的孩子的父母显示出对家中婴儿的压倒性偏爱,在有两个孩子的父母中,有62%选择最小的孩子。有三个或三个以上孩子的父母中,43%的人更倾向于选择最小的孩子,三分之一的人选择老二,只有19%的人倾向于选择老大。

Dr Vijayeti Sinh is a clinical psychologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. She says that a favouritism towards a youngest child is often to do with the social and emotional skills associated with birth order – as parents gain more practice in child-rearing, they have a better idea of how they want to shape their offspring’s childhood, and what attributes are most important to pass on.

维杰蒂·辛赫(Vijayeti Sinh)博士是纽约市西奈山医院的临床心理学家。她说,对最小孩子的偏爱往往与社会和情感技能有关,而这又与出生顺序相关——随着父母在养育孩子方面获得更多实践,他们对如何塑造后代的童年有更好的想法,以及什么属性是最重要的传承。

“Parents tend to favour a child that is most like them, reminds them of themselves, or represents what they view as a success of parenting,” she says. “Younger children are most likely to have been raised by a parent who, over time and experience, is more confident and skilled in their child-raising.”

她说:“父母倾向于偏爱最像自己的孩子,让他们想起自己,或者代表他们眼中成功的育儿方式。随着时间的推移和经验的积累,有年幼孩子的父母更有可能在育儿方面更加自信和熟练。”

‘Bad’ parenting?

“坏”父母?

Though parents do often have a favourite, many are racked with guilt, knowing that showing a preference will have a long-lasting impact on their child’s sense of self-worth. The concern is not entirely unfounded.

尽管父母们通常都有最喜欢的孩子,但许多人都会感到内疚,因为他们知道,表现出这种偏爱会对孩子的自我价值感产生持久影响。这种担忧并非完全没有根据。

“Children who grow up in families where they feel that they are treated unfairly may experience a deep sense of unworthiness,” says Sinh. “They might feel that they are unlovable in some way, or do not possess the special traits and characteristics needed to be loved by others. Feeling like the black sheep of the family can lead to fears and insecurities – children might become self-protective and try to be overly nice and agreeable around others.”

辛赫说:“在感到受不公平对待的家庭中长大的孩子,可能会产生深深的自卑感。他们可能觉得自己在某些方面不可爱,或者缺乏被人爱所需要的特质。感觉自己是家里的害群之马会导致恐惧和不安全感——孩子可能会自我防护,和他人相处时可能过分友好、随和。”

But for most parents, their worries are misplaced. Evidence suggests that unless preferential treatment is very extreme, most children are not impacted by being the least favourite child.

但对大多数父母来说,他们的担心是不必要的。有证据表明,除非待遇非常极端,否则大多数孩子不会因为自己是“最不受欢迎”的孩子而受到影响。

“Sometimes parents are blatantly obvious in their demonstration of love and affection,” says Sinh. “But when parents are mindful and thoughtful and do their best to ensure that any feelings of closeness or likeability factor aren’t plain and clear, then children don’t feel unworthy of their parents’ love and support.”

“有时父母在爱和感情的表现上是很明显的,” 辛赫说。“但如果父母细心体贴,尽最大努力让孩子们感受到亲密或可爱,不那么明显的呈现偏心,那么他们就不会觉得自己不值得爱和支持。”

In fact, in most cases children might not even know that their parents prefer their sibling in the first place. In one study, when people who stated that their parents had a favourite child were probed, a staggering four out of five claimed that their sibling was favoured over them – a seemingly improbable statistic. Other studies have shown that children incorrectly identify who the favourite child is more than 60% of the time.

事实上,大多数情况下,孩子们可能根本不知道父母更喜欢自己的兄弟姐妹。在一项研究中,那些声称父母有最喜欢孩子的人接受调查,惊人的是,五分之四的人声称他们的兄弟姐妹比他们自己更受青睐——这似乎是一个不太可能的统计数据。其他研究表明,孩子们在超过60%的情况下错误地判断谁是最受喜欢的孩子。

Of course, it’s possible that parents are doing a much better job of disguising their preferences than you would expect. Or – as Griffin suggests – we’re simply very bad at guessing who the favourite child really is.

当然,父母在掩饰喜好方面可能比你想象的要高明许多。或者,正如格里芬所说,我们只是不擅长猜测谁才是真正的宠儿。

“Although you might think that children instinctively know whether their parent has a favourite child and who that child is, the data is surprising,” she says. “Children might assume that the first-born or the ‘baby’ of the family is the favourite, or the child who is an overachiever in the family and causes less parenting stress. Whereas in actuality, the parent might have different and varied reasons for the favouritism – such as favouring the child who struggles the most, or the child that is most similar to them.”

她说:“尽管你可能认为,孩子们本能地知道父母是否有最喜欢的孩子,以及这个孩子是谁,但数据令人惊讶。孩子们可能会认为家里的老大或‘宝宝’最受欢迎,或者认为家里的老大或‘宝宝’成绩优异,给父母带来的压力较小。然而实际上,父母可能有不同的原因导致这种偏爱——比如偏爱那些最吃力的孩子,或者和他们最相似的孩子。”

Griffin argues that it’s perfectly OK – and even expected – for parents to have favourites, and that parents shouldn’t feel guilty if they find themselves feeling closer to one child over another. She says that although children who believe they are the least-favoured child tend to have lower self-esteem and higher rates of depression, in the majority of cases, children have no idea which sibling their parent or parents prefer.

格里芬认为,父母有偏爱是完全可以接受的,甚至是意料之中的,如果父母发现自己和一个孩子更亲近,也不应该感到内疚。她说,尽管那些认为自己是最不受欢迎的孩子往往自尊心较低,患抑郁症的几率较高,但在大多数情况下,孩子不知道父母更喜欢哪一个兄弟姐妹。

Perhaps who the favourite child really is isn’t so important after all.

也许到底谁是最受欢迎的孩子并不那么重要。

No less love

爱不会少”

Griffin has found that the favourite-child conundrum has shown up in both her professional and personal lives: her three children constantly joke about who the ‘favourite’ child must be.

格里芬发现,最受偏爱的孩子这个难题在她的职业和个人生活中都出现过:她的三个孩子经常开玩笑说谁是“最受欢迎的”孩子。

Although she recommends parents or children who find that favouritism is affecting their relationships or mental health should speak to a paediatrician or mental health provider, she believes most imbalances can be addressed with simple tactics that demonstrate care and attention.

她建议父母或孩子如果发现偏爱影响了家人关系或心理健康,应该向儿科医生或心理健康提供者咨询,但她认为,大多数不平衡可以通过简单的策略来解决,以显示关心和关注。

Griffin says that although parents might not readily admit to favouritism, they certainly won’t be alone if they find themselves feeling closer to one child over another. Most mothers and fathers have favourites – and that’s OK.

格里芬说,虽然父母们可能不会轻易承认自己偏心,但如果发现对一个孩子更亲近,他们也肯定不会是独一无二的,“大多数父母都有自己的最爱,这真的没什么。”

“There are going to be days when we prefer to be around one child over another, for a number of different reasons,” she says. “The important thing to remember is that having a favourite child does not mean that you love your other children less.”

她说:“由于各种不同的原因,我们总有某一天会更喜欢和某一个孩子在一起。重要的是要记住,有一个自己最喜欢的孩子并不意味着你对其他孩子的爱会减少。”

双语热点:敬畏心理学:体验“心灵震撼”对自己有何好处******

如果发现自己陷入焦虑和消极情绪,不妨试着畅想浩瀚的宇宙,或是体验大自然的震撼魅力。体验令人惊叹的事物会对大脑产生真正深远的影响——增强我们的记忆力和创造力,并激励我们对周围的人更加无私。它对我们的心理健康产生深远的影响,让我们正确看待自己的焦虑。

Awe: The 'little earthquake' that could free your mind

Whenever Ethan Kross finds himself in a mental rut of worrying and negative self-talk, he walks five blocks to his local arboretum and contemplates one of the magnificent trees in front of him, and the astonishing power of nature.

每当伊桑·克罗斯(Ethan Kross)发现自己陷入焦虑和消极的情绪时,他就会走五个街区到当地的植物园,凝视一棵宏伟的树木,体会大自然惊人的力量。

If he can’t get to the arboretum, he spends a few moments thinking about the astonishing possibilities of aeroplanes and spacecraft. “I think about how we went from struggling to start fires, just a few thousand years ago, to being able to land safely on another planet,” he says.

如果去不了植物园,他就会花一些时间思考飞机和宇宙飞船的伟大。他说,“我想到几千年前,人类钻木取火,如今已经能够在另一个星球上安全着陆。”

The aim, in each case, is to evoke awe – which he defines as “the wonder that we feel when we encounter something that we can’t easily explain”.

这些都是为了唤起内心的崇敬和敬畏——他将这定义为“遇到难以解释的事物时内心所感受到的奇迹”。

Kross’s habits are founded in scientific evidence. As a professor of psychology at the University of Michigan, he knows feelings of awe can have a truly profound influence on the mind – enhancing our memory and creativity as well as inspiring us to act more altruistically to the people around us. It can also have a profound impact on our mental health, by allowing us to put our anxieties into perspective.

克罗斯是密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的一名心理学教授,他这个习惯是有科学依据的。体验令人惊叹的事物会对大脑产生真正深远的影响——增强我们的记忆力和创造力,并激励我们对周围的人更加无私。它对我们的心理健康产生深远的影响,让我们正确看待自己的焦虑。

Because most of us only experience awe sporadically, we remain unaware of its benefits. When we’re feeling down, we may be more likely to look for light relief in a comedy, for instance – seeking feelings of amusement that are not nearly so powerful. Yet generating awe can trigger a great mental shift, making it a potentially essential tool to improve our health and wellbeing. And there are many ways for us to cultivate the emotion in our daily lives.

因为大多数人只是偶尔体验敬畏,所以仍然没有意识到它的好处。当我们情绪低落的时候,我们更可能在喜剧中寻找放松,例如,寻找娱乐的感觉,但这没有那么强大。产生敬畏却可以引发巨大的心理转变,成为改善我们健康和幸福的必要工具。在日常生活中,我们有很多方法来培养敬畏之情。

Little earthquakes

震撼心灵

Michelle Shiota, a professor of social psychology at Arizona State University, US, was one of the early pioneers to discover the benefits of awe. She has a particular interest in the ways it can remove our “mental filters” to encourage more flexible thinking.

美国亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)社会心理学教授米歇尔·施塔(Michelle Shiota)是最早发现敬畏益处者之一。她特别感兴趣的是,敬畏可以消除我们的“心理过滤器”,以鼓励更灵活的思维。

Consider memory. If someone tells us a story, we typically remember what we think we should have heard, rather than the specific details of the event. This can mean that we miss unexpected or unusual elements that add much-needed clarity and specificity to what happened. We may even form false memories for events that did not happen, but which we assume are likely to have occurred in that kind of situation.

来看看记忆。如果有人给我们讲了一个故事,我们通常会记住我们认为应该听到的内容,而不是整个事件的具体细节。这可能意味着我们错过了意想不到的或不寻常的元素,而这些元素又加强了事情的清晰度和特异性。我们甚至可能对没有发生过的事情形成错误的记忆,但我们认为这些事情很可能发生过。

A few years ago, Shiota decided to test whether eliciting a feeling of awe could prevent this from occurring. She first asked the participants to view one of three videos: an awe-inspiring science film that took viewers on a journey from the outer cosmos to sub-atomic particles; a heart-warming film about a figure skater winning an Olympic gold medal; or a neutral film about the building of a cinder-block wall.

几年前,施塔决定测试敬畏感是否能防止错误记忆的发生。她首先要求参与者观看三个视频中的一个:一个令人敬畏的科学电影,带领观众观察外宇宙到亚原子粒子的旅程;一部关于花样滑冰运动员赢得奥运金牌的暖心电影;或一个关于建筑的中性片。

Participants then listened to a five-minute story describing a couple going out for a romantic dinner and answered questions about what they had heard. Some of these questions concerned the things you would typically expect at any meal – “Did the waiter pour the wine?” – while others concerned atypical information, such as whether the waiter wore glasses. As Shiota had hypothesised, the participants who had seen the science film were more accurate at remembering the details of what they had heard than those who had seen the heart-warming or neutral films.

然后参与者听一个五分钟的故事,描述一对情侣外出吃浪漫晚餐,然后回答问题。这些问题中有一些是你在任何一顿饭上都能想到的——“服务员倒酒了吗?”。而另一些人则关注不寻常的信息,比如服务员是否戴眼镜。正如施塔所假设的那样,看过科幻片的参与者比看过暖心片或中性片的参与者更能准确地记住细节。

Why would this be? Shiota points out the brain is constantly forming predictions of what will happen next; it uses its experiences to form mental stimulations that guide our perception, attention and behaviour. Awe-inspiring experiences – with their sense of grandeur, wonder and amazement – may confound those expectations, creating a “little earthquake” in the mind that causes the brain to reassess its assumptions and to pay more attention to what is actually in front of it.

为什么会这样呢?施塔指出,大脑不断地对将要发生的事情做出预测:利用自己的经历形成心理刺激,引导我们的感知、注意力和行为。令人敬畏的经历——带有宏伟、惊奇和感叹的感觉,可能会打破这些期望,在头脑中制造一个“小地震”,使大脑重新评估其假设,并更多地关注实际发生在眼前的事情。

“The mind dials back its ‘predictive coding’ to just look around and gather information,” she says. Besides boosting our memories for details, this can improve critical thinking, she points out – as people pay more attention to the specific nuances of an argument, rather than relying on their intuitions about whether it feels persuasive or not.

她说,“大脑会调整它的‘预测编码’,变为仅仅环顾四周,收集信息。”她指出,除了增强我们对细节的记忆之外,这还可以提高批判性思维——因为人们变得更关注一项论点的具体细微差别,而不是依靠他们的直觉判断它是否有说服力。

This capacity to drop our assumptions and see the world and its problems afresh might also explain why the emotion contributes to greater creativity. Take a study by Alice Chirico and colleagues at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart in Milan, Italy, published in 2018. Participants who took a walk through a virtual reality forest scored higher on tests of original thinking than those who viewed a more mundane video of hens wandering in the grass. The awe-inspired participants were more innovative when asked how to improve a child’s toy, for example.

这种放下假设,重新看待世界及其问题的能力,或许也解释了为什么情绪有助于激发更大的创造力。以意大利米兰圣心天主教大学(Catholic University of the Sacred Heart)的爱丽丝·基里科(Alice Chirico)及其同事于2018年发表的一项研究为例,那些在虚拟现实森林中散步的参与者,在原创思维测试中得分高于那些观看母鸡在草地上漫步视频的参与者。例如,当被问及如何改进孩子的玩具时,受到“敬畏”激励的参与者更有创造力。

The Attenborough Effect

“艾登堡效应”

Awe’s most transformative effects may concern the way we view ourselves. When we feel wonder at something truly incredible and grand, “we perceive ourselves as smaller and less significant in relation to the rest of the world”, says Shiota. One consequence of this is greater altruism. “When I am less focused on myself, on my own goals and needs and the thoughts in my head, I have more bandwidth to notice you and what you may be experiencing.”

敬畏产生的影响,最具变革性的可能与我们看待自己的方式有关。施塔说,当我们对一些真正不可思议和伟大的事情感到惊讶时,“我们会觉得自己相对于世界显得渺小和不那么重要”。这样做的一个后果就是更大的利他主义。“当我不那么关注自己,不那么关注自己的目标、需求和脑海中的想法时,我就有更多的空间去关注你和你可能正在经历的事情。”

To measure these effects, a team led by Paul Piff at the University of California, Irvine asked a third of their participants to watch a five-minute clip of the BBC’s Planet Earth series, composed of grand, sweeping shots of scenic vistas, mountains, plains, forests and canyon. (The rest watched a five-minute clip of funny animal videos, or a neutral video about DIY.)

为了测量这些影响,加州大学欧文分校(University of California, Irvine)的保罗·皮夫(Paul Piff)领导一个团队,要求三分之一的参与者观看BBC的《地球脉动》(Planet Earth)系列节目的五分钟剪辑,其中包含宏伟的风景、山脉、平原、森林和峡谷的镜头。(其余的人观看了一段五分钟的有趣的动物视频,或者一段关于DIY的中性视频。)

The participants then rated the extent to which they agreed with four statements, such as “I feel the presence of something greater than myself” and “I feel small and insignificant”. Finally, they took part in an experiment known as the “dictator game”, in which they were given a resource – in this case, 10 raffle tickets for a $100 gift voucher – that they could choose to share with a partner, if they so wished.

然后,参与者对四种陈述的支持程度进行打分,比如“我感到有比我自己更重要的东西存在”和“我感到自己渺小和微不足道”。最后,他们参加了一项被称为“独裁者游戏”的实验,在这个实验中,他们得到了一项资源——10张彩票可以换取100美元的礼券——如果他们愿意,他们可以选择与伴侣分享。

The feelings of awe produced a significant change in their generosity, increasing the number of tickets that the participants shared with their partners. Through subsequent statistical analyses, the researchers were able to show that this came through the changes to the sense of self. The smaller the participants felt, the more generous they were.

敬畏的感觉使他们的慷慨程度发生了显著变化,增加了参与者与伴侣分享的数量。通过随后的统计分析,研究人员能够表明,这是通过自我意识的改变,参与者感觉自己越渺小,他们就越慷慨。

To replicate the finding in a more natural setting, one of the researchers took students on a walk through a grove of Tasmanian eucalyptus trees – which grow to more than 200 feet (60 metres). As the students contemplated the plants’ splendour, the researchers “accidentally” dropped the pens they were carrying – and noted whether the participant offered to pick them up. Sure enough, they found that the participants were more helpful, during this awe-inspiring walk, than students who had instead spent the time contemplating a tall (but not very majestic) building.

为了在更自然的环境中复制这一发现,一名研究人员带着学生们在塔斯马尼亚的桉树林中散步,这些桉树可以长到200英尺(60米)以上。当学生们在观察这些植物的壮观时,研究人员“不小心”掉了他们携带的钢笔——并注意到参与者是否主动把它们捡起来。果然,他们发现,在这次令人惊叹的散步中,参与者比那些把时间花在看一座高大(但不是很宏伟)建筑上的学生更乐于助人。

Gaining perspective

对自己有何好处?

Last, but not least, are the enormous benefits for our mental health. Like the boosts to our generosity, this comes from the shrunken sense of self, which seems to reduce ruminative thinking.

最后,但并非最不重要的是,敬畏对我们的心理健康有巨大的好处。就像我们慷慨的提升一样,这来自于自我感觉的萎缩,减少了焦虑地思考。

This is potentially very important, since rumination is a known risk factor for depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. “You're often zoomed in so narrowly on the situation that you're not thinking about anything else,” says Kross, whose book Chatter explores the effects of this negative self-talk. Awe forces us to broaden our perspective, he says, so that we break free of the ruminative cycle of thinking. “When you are in the presence of something vast and indescribable, you feel smaller, and so does your negative chatter,” he says.

这可能非常重要,因为沉思是抑郁症、焦虑症和创伤后应激障碍的已知风险因素。“你经常被狭隘地聚焦在一个情境中,以至于你没有想过其他的事情,”克罗斯说,他的《闲谈》(Chatter)一书探索了这种消极的自我对话的影响。敬畏迫使我们开阔视野,他说,这样我们就能打破思维的反刍循环。他说。“当你面对巨大而难以形容的事物时,你会觉得自己渺小,你的负面谈话也会到此为止。”

As evidence, Kross points to one extraordinary experiment by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley. The participants were military veterans and youth from underserved communities, many of whom were suffering serious life stress. (Some were even experiencing the lingering symptoms of PTSD.)

作为证据,克罗斯指出了加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)研究人员进行的一项非凡实验。参加者是退伍军人和问题青年,他们中许多人承受着严重的生活压力。(有些人甚至有创伤后应激障碍的后遗症。)

They had all previously signed up for a white-water rafting trip on Utah’s Green River, sponsored by a charitable organisation. Before and after the trip, they were questioned about their general psychological wellbeing – including their feelings of stress and their capacity to cope with life’s challenges. After each day of rafting, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that measured their feelings of awe, amusement, contentment, gratitude, joy and pride.

他们之前都报名参加了由一家慈善组织赞助的犹他州绿河激流漂流之旅。在旅行前后,研究人员对他们的总体心理健康状况进行了调查,包括他们的压力感受和应对生活挑战的能力。每天的漂流结束后,参与者被要求填写一份调查问卷,衡量他们的敬畏、娱乐、满足、感激、快乐和骄傲感。

As you might hope, the trip was generally very enjoyable for most of the participants. It was the feelings of awe, however, that predicted the biggest improvements in their feelings of stress and their overall wellbeing.

正如你所希望的那样,对于大多数参与者来说,这趟旅行总体上是非常愉快的。然而,敬畏的感觉预示着他们的压力感觉和整体幸福感获得最大的改善。

Clearly, these were exceptional circumstances – but the researchers noted very similar effects in a second study that examined students’ everyday contact with nature. Once again, they found that experiences of awe had a far greater impact on the students’ long-term wellbeing, compared to contentment, amusement, gratitude, joy and pride.

显然,这些都是特殊情况,但研究人员在第二项研究中发现了非常相似的效果,该研究调查了学生每天与大自然接触的状况。他们再次发现,与满足、娱乐、感恩、快乐和骄傲相比,敬畏的体验对学生的长期健康影响更大。

Awesome or awful?

敬畏或可怕?

Before we become too awestruck by this research, Shiota warns scientists still need to explore whether this potent emotion has any negative sides. She suspects that awe may explain the appeal of many conspiracy theories, for example – with their intricate and mysterious explanations of the world’s workings.

在我们被这项研究成果说服之前,施塔警告说,科学家们仍然需要探索这种强烈的情绪是否有任何消极的一面。她怀疑敬畏可以解释许多阴谋论为何有市场,例如,那些复杂而神秘的解释世界运行规律的理论。

In general, however, the benefits of awe are worth considering whenever we feel that our thinking has become stuck in an unproductive or unhealthy groove. “The capacity to step outside of ourselves is a really valuable skill,” says Kross. While he finds walking in his local arboretum, and thoughts about space travel, to bring the necessary feelings of wonder and reverential respect, he suggests that we will all have our personal preferences. “Try to identify what your own triggers are,” he suggests.

然而,总的来说,每当我们觉得自己的思维陷入一种无益或不健康的状态时,敬畏的好处就值得我们考虑。“走出自我的能力非常宝贵,”克罗斯说。当他在植物园里散步,想到太空旅行时,就会产生惊奇和敬畏之情,他认为我们都有个人喜好。他建议。“试着找出你自己的触发点产生敬畏。”

For Shiota, the possibilities are as infinite as the universe. “Stars in the night sky remind us of the universe beyond our experience; the sound of the ocean reminds us of its enormous depths; vivid sunsets remind us how vast and thick the atmosphere surrounding our planet is,” she says. That’s not to mention the sublime experiences offered by music, film or art. “It's all about choosing to experience and attend to the extraordinary in our world, rather than that which is, for us, routine.”

对施塔来说,可能性就像宇宙一样无限。“夜空中的星星让我们想起了身外的宇宙;海洋的声音让我们想起它巨大的深度;生动的日落提醒我们,我们星球周围的大气层是多么的广阔和厚重,”她说。更不用说音乐、电影或艺术所带来的崇高体验了。“这一切都是为了选择去体验和关注这个世界的非凡,而不是日常生活的琐碎。”

【百姓彩票-百姓购彩👉👉十年信誉大平台,点击进入👉👉 打造国内最专业最具信赖的彩票平台,为您提供百姓彩票-百姓购彩用户登录全网最精准计划软件,APP下载登陆,强大的竞彩网上推荐!!】

一站式自清理 科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI带来清扫新体验******

  现如今节奏快的日常生活使我们回到家以后,压根就不愿意再去扫地拖地了,可是地板的尘土却会由于你的忽略而慢慢增加,要想住在一个整洁洁净的自然环境里,又务必让自身工作起來。但是好在高新科技的发展为日常生活给予了大量的便捷,例如如今十分受大家喜爱的智能扫地机,就从此不用大家亲自低头拿扫帚来打扫乃至拖地板了,轻轻松松拿下家中的清理难题。自然,木地板是整洁了,但智能扫地机要怎样清洗呢?今日就借着双十一大促期内,为大伙儿强烈推荐一款能够自清理的扫地车——科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI,真真正正实现释放大家的两手。

    如今,扫地车愈来愈智能化,从两年前单一作用的清理,到之后的扫拖一体,再到自集尘器,而科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI除开上述的那些特点外,还配置有一个全能型通信基站,不但适用全自动清理拖把的作用,使我们享有一站式的保养感受,还能够完成全自动回洗,全自动灌水,全自动烘干处理等作用,地板清洗越来越翻倍轻轻松松。

科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI智能扫地机。

    在清理层面,最先,科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI具有5000Pa超大吸附力,适用dToF激光器扫描仪,与此同时躲避障碍物工作能力获得升級,结合TrueDetect 3D和AIVI技术性,将视觉效果与深层信息内容检测开展结合,产生了AIVI 3D技术性融合两大技术性的优点,能够合理的提高机器的躲避障碍物工作能力。次之,沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI在拖地面上选用转盘式拖地板计划方案,配用OZMO Turbo 2.0转动充压擦地系统软件,配置了2个拖把支撑架,二块拖把在运转的与此同时往下充压,进而完成与人力清除同样的实际效果;并且当储水箱水流量不够时,科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNII会全自动返还到通信基站中开展补水保湿,确保在拖地板时水流量的充裕,保证控湿擦地。

扫拖一体更整洁,躲避障碍物工作能力也十分优异。

通信基站配置2个储水箱,一个为冷水箱能为扫地车补水保湿及其清理拖把,另一个可搜集废水。

    除开出色的清扫和拖地板作用外,科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI在清理层面较大的特征是可开展“自清理”。在整屋清理的环节中,科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI会在清除一段时间后自行回到通信基站清理拖把,那样就可以确保拖地板时拖把的清理,在清理拖把的过程中应用冷水箱内整洁的水来手洗拖把,再将废水回收利用到废水桶中。与此同时还能够配搭地砖用清洁液,能够更快的除去木地板和拖把的污垢,而且提升芬芳。

全自动回洗拖把的清理对比图。

    全自动清理拖把,全自动补水保湿早已大幅度缓解了我们在应用智能扫地机时的人力操作流程,但科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI此外还适用全自动集尘器,全自动杀菌和全自动烘干处理以内的五大作用。通信基站內部水道设定的纳米银杀菌控制模块,随时随地确保水道之中的环境整洁,防止因病菌滋长造成家中路面自然环境遭受环境污染,最终开展暖风烘干处理拖把,合理避免臭味和黄曲霉菌的产生。

    此外,做为一个“智能机器人”,科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI在人工智能层面也十分优异。內部配用了无人驾驶等级的黎明时分旭日3高算率AI集成ic,可以大幅度提高认知物件的类别和认知速率,可认知物件三维信息内容,一不小心坠落在地面上的手机充电线,毛绒娃娃都能很好地鉴别并避让,乃至能鉴别人型物件并绕道,保证清静清理打搅。相互配合ECOVACS Home手机APP应用,则能够进行手机上与地宝X1 OMNI的匹配联接,对不一样的卧室开展设定,从清扫次序到不一样的清扫方式,及其自定地区的路面都能够在APP上完成设定,在清理全过程中,清理路线及其情况都能够在APP查询。

    科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI的监管还反映在互动上,例如内置的YIKO智能语音系统系统软件,能够同时和DEEBOT X1 OMNI会话,例如:清理卧房,全自动集尘器,回来清理我这片地区这些命令,都能轻轻松松下发。在我们无聊的时候,乃至还能跟YIKO说说话,了解气温,帮助算术也都能保证,智能扫地机秒变移动的智能化智能语音助手。

科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI >>5999元【点击购买】。

    可以说,拥有这款科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI智能扫地机,再也不能被地板清洗难题困惑,充足享有空闲与周末时光。现阶段恰逢京东双十一科沃斯知名品牌欢乐,预购价7499元的科沃斯DEEBOT X1 OMNI,如今只需5999元就能拿到手,而且晒单还送摩飞杀菌套服,十分特惠!

Bread made in Xinjiang to land on Russian plates******

URUMQI, Nov. 14 (Xinhua) -- A truck carrying naan, a type of leavened flatbread and a staple of people in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, passed through Horgos customs Saturday on its way to Russia.。

Naan-making industrial parks in Horgos have exported the round pancake-shaped bread, a popular food in Central Asian countries.。

"The truck will arrive in Russia in five days," said Yu Chengzhong, chairman of Horgos Jinyi International Trade (Group) Co., Ltd., adding the company caters to diversified needs of naan products in different countries.。

Horgos, which borders Kazakhstan, is China's closest port to Central Asia and Europe by land transport.。

Local naan maker Ziburam Ebirayim, who has been in the trade for 25 years, is proud to see his products selling well in Central Asian markets. He said bakers in Xinjiang have learned to use different raw materials and techniques to produce a variety of tastes. Enditem。

张翰朱梓骁合体直播引热议 网友:梦回《流星雨》

1.突发!乌核电站水电站遭攻击,可能导致核事故!美军盗运叙利亚石油,马斯克回应下架Model 3长续航版

2.「投票」热刺两个进球之前都有犯规嫌疑?你怎么看?

3.张新成晒深蹲动图回应屁垫争议:是我蹲得不够深吗

4.库珀率领诺丁汉在前2级联赛中收获23胜,同期仅次于瓜帅和克洛普

© 1996 - 百姓彩票-百姓购彩 版权所有 xxxxx

地址:

电话:(总机)

编辑部邮箱:

购彩吧-首页-趣彩_趣彩平台-官网-凤凰彩票---首页_欢迎您-购彩大厅彩票-官网-乐发彩票-安全购彩-彩神1官网-彩神1官网有限公司-1分快3-官方网站-梦想彩票-【购彩大厅】-彩1安卓版下载-国丰彩票官网-购彩大厅-恒彩彩票-首页-凤凰彩票官方网站-彩神-Welcome-神彩争霸app官网_首页-彩皇彩票注册,官网-购乐彩票-首页
2022年北京近40所学校高考成绩汇总| 北京女子晒与小17岁男友的成长:我上大一他才10斤| 一定会越来越好!今天,武汉“解封”一年了| 王蒙徽当选湖北省委书记!31岁即成为清华副教授| 新冠口服药阿兹夫定片纳入新冠诊疗方案| 孙兴慜高速反击,里斯-詹姆斯拉人领到黄牌| 售价36.98万,2022款三菱帕杰罗现身国内| 窝案?三位高管同日被查,这个“硕鼠”因一碗生日面全招了| 牢记嘱托建新功|掌握核心技术 这条道路必须走| 英超-阿沃尼伊破门亨德森力拒赖斯点球 诺丁汉森林1-0西汉姆联| 首次披露!美航母舰长:“中国舰艇经常在南海尾随我们”| 方舱医院设计导则:宜远离人口密集区域| 对疫情发生地临时静态管理,是必要之举| 突发!乌核电站水电站遭攻击,可能导致核事故!美军盗运叙利亚石油,马斯克回应下架Model 3长续航版| 火箭军某旅打破建制营壁垒 一营的尖子教会了六营的兵| 全新三菱Xpander Cross发布,新增AYC控制系统| 深度 美国的两个“敌人”走到一起:伊朗和委内瑞拉签署20年合作协议| 立秋了吃什么?贴秋膘不一定非吃肉|